Posts Tagged ‘UNFCCC’

Peru climate summit to draft global climate business plan for next thirty to fifty years, says UN climate chief

Monday, September 29th, 2014

By Felix von Geyer

Energized by over 300,000 climate demonstrators who marched through New York ahead of United Nations General Secretary Ban Ki-Moon’s climate summit last week, Christiana Figueres, the Executive Secretary of the UN Framework Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) told a Montreal audience on Friday to expect a draft global agreement in Peru this year to address climate change.

“We must, can and will” address climate change, Figueres told the 600 delegates assembled at the Principles for Responsible Investment conference on Friday morning before she listed a host of pledges and commitments that had poured from the New York summit earlier that week.

Three major pension funds committed to invest up to $31 billion into renewable energies to help decarbonize the energy sector in the battle against climate change was one major initiative. A further $100 billion of pension funds were likely to be divested from fossil fuels. The eagerness of 75 of the world’s governments alongside 1,000 global corporations to call for carbon pricing, whether through a cap and trade emissions trading scheme or carbon tax was another major step forward, said Figueres.

Moreover, if the Rockefeller brothers whose ancestor JD Rockefeller founded Standard Oil that later split into what is now Exxon Mobile and ChevronTexaco could divest the Rockefeller Foundation’s investments from oil as they announced last week, then “there is something in the air,” said Figueres.

Figueres asked PRI’s delegates to help her by undertaking three tasks in her quest to find a major global climate agreement in Paris in 15 months’ time.

“Help me to scrub the lobbying practices to avoid systemic risk and avoid human pain,” she said, referring to the lobbying process of the fossil-fuel industry that has helped prevent progress on addressing climate change beyond a broad commitment at the 2009 Copenhagen summit to avoid exceeding two degrees Celsius increase in average global temperatures.

Moreover, Figueres called on investors to maximize their ability to influence Finance Ministers around the world and make them realize that any draft text Peru’s Environment Minister is looking to craft for agreement in Paris in December 2015 is “not an environment agreement but a major technological, economic and risk opportunity,” she said.

Only the previous day, the PRI members had made the ‘Montreal Carbon Pledge’ to track the carbon intensity and profile of $3 trillion of its funds that are otherwise estimated at a total of $22 trillion. Figueres’ third request was direct: “Take that Montreal Carbon Pledge to $22 trillion,” she stated.

Ultimately replacing the old fossil fuel infrastructure with a new energy infrastructure would transition to a better quality of life for everybody by reducing energy insecurities; immigration costs; transportation costs and health costs.

“To get there, we must have the future very, very clear,” said Figueres as she called for “global peaking (of emissions) over the next ten years and then carbon neutrality to restore what the Industrial Revolution disturbed.”

Later during a lunchtime talk at CORIM, the Montreal Council for International Relations, Figueres spoke of further commitments made in New York: the forestry sector pledged to halve deforestation by 2020; palm oil producers committed to zero net deforestation by 2020 while 500 million farmers worldwide sought to move to smart agriculture. Furthermore, an 8,000 kilometre energy corridor through Africa would provide renewable energy and six transnational oil companies were committed to best practices and reporting in acknowledgement that “We’re part of the problem but we can be part of the solution,” Figueres told the diners.

Any global climate agreement in Paris would need to chart the course for the next thirty to fifty years – “way beyond the electoral cycles of anyone,” stressed Figueres who asked the room to put pressure on their subnational governments to address climate change and not to give up on national governments.

“Here’s the truth: the transformation in the energy sector and other sectors will be so huge that we cannot afford to leave behind a country, a family or a person,” the UN’s climate chief declared.

Quoting Montreal-born singer/songwriter and poet Leonard Cohen’s song ‘Everybody Knows,’ Figueres added that “Everybody knows – that we can do it. And everybody knows that deep in your heart that we have a choice about the future,” she said, stressing society had a choice to move into a low-carbon future either by crashing into physics or developing its policies.

“And everybody knows that it’s in everybody’s interest to move into that future with fifteen months to get this right. If not, it will take ten years to get around the table again and we will have economic disruption and a political crisis,” predicted figueres.

Aviation breakthrough in combatting climate change

Tuesday, October 15th, 2013
Governments unanimously approve market-based mechanism for aviation to combat climate change by Felix von Geyer in Montreal
A major breakthrough in an agreement to tackle greenhouse gas emissions was made in Montreal on Friday as the member countries of the International Civil Aviation Organization unanimously agreed a Decision to Develop a market-based mechanism (MBM) to regulate and reduce global greenhouse gas emissions from aviation at ICAO’s 38th General Assembly.
The proposals will be put to ICAO by 2016 when a Decision to Implement for 2020 will be agreed.
“The devil as always will be in the detail” said ICAO Secretary General Raymond Benjamin who, acknowledging the unheralded unanimity among members on the issue of climate change, declared to much laughter: “The devil  has taken a vacation.”
Indeed, the agreement represents a major step in agreeing a global framework to addressing climate and is the first time that all governments have embraced a decision to develop a market-based mechanism and is also the first time that a sectoral approach to addressing climate change has been taken on a global scale.
ICAO has to report its proposed action to address the sector’s greenhouse gas emissions to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change this year under a decision agreed at the UN Climate Change Conference in Durban in 2011.
Going into the Assembly that started last Tuesday, the options for regulating emissions were to introduce carbon offset; offsets with revenues or a full-out market-based mechanism such as a cap and trade similar to the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme that looked to include all aviaiton emissions into its EU ETS for phase III starting in 2013.
Aviation emissions account for approximately 2% of global greenhouse gas emissions but the specifics of aviation emissions means that their emissions actually contribute an estimated 5% of climate forcing. Until recently, it was thought that aviation could only reduce its emissions through better navigation and more direct flights. However, in the past five years the advent of biofuels have shown they can provide a safe alternative to traditional kerosene-based jetfuel while other technologies such as Gas-to-Liquids as developed by Shell in Qatar are available and possible microalgae developments that could arguably provide a carbon-neutral jetfuel are possible.
How ICAO will develop the various proposals is the “Devil in the detail” that Benjamin mentioned. Consensus is that ICAO will need to cap the carbon content of fuel against the energy content of fuel as it comes to market, which in the case of civil aviation the market would be an ICAO bunker near the airports. This in effect would look to increase the energy density of fuel against the carbon emissions and would require an assessment of what the biofuel and alternative fuel possibilities are and whether these could be made globally available while also needing to address infrastructure issues such as pipelines and so forth.
The importance of Friday’s agreement cannot however be undermined when climate polictics have divided nations, as witnessed at the Copenhagen Climate Change Conference in 2009 that was meant to usher in a comprehensive global agreement that is now deferred to 2015 as again agreed in Durban.
A total of seventy-two reservations were raised by countries, many reservations revolving around familiar dividing lines such as Common But Differentiated Responsibilities (CBDR). Saudi Arabia, traditionally the world’s largest oil producer and highest producer of greenhouse gas emissions stating that they did not want to be burdened by costs at the expense of their society and economy. India, traditionally an obstacle in the path of climate consensus due to its need to alleviate poverty and its dependence on fossil fuels, also expressed its concerns over CBDR, mutual consent and how market-based mechanisms need to pass through the test of feasibility.
Canada expressed its reservation on the inclusion of CBDR as it was incompatible with international aviation activities.
Last week’s release by the International Panel on Climate Change indicated the rate and pace of climate change has surpassed scientists’ original expectations. What the IPCC Working Group 1 report did not say, however is: “You know you can commodify carbon emissions; but you can never commodify time.”

Canada’s ‘meaningful’ climate action brought under scrutiny by report

Saturday, December 17th, 2011

Canada will likely miss its 2020 greenhouse gas emissions reductions target by almost a third according to latest analysis by Canadian environmental think-tank the Pembina Institute.

At the recent Durban UN climate change conference, Federal Environment Minister Peter Kent referred to Canada’s ‘meaningful action’ on climate change and the government’s targets to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions 17 percent below 2005 levels by 2020 as the government sought to negotiate a global climate agreement that included all major emitters.

However, Pembina’s report ‘Responsible Action’ indicates that their projected shortfall in Alberta’s provincial target would actually reduce Canada’s mitigation ambitions to 12 percent below 2005 levels by 2020, assuming the government is successful in reducing its emissions elsewhere.

Kent has frequently underlined Canada’s commitment to the Copenhagen Accord, and declared in his recent Ministerial declaration speech in Durban that “Kyoto is in the past.” On Monday, Kent announced Canada would withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol whose targets of reducing emissions 6 percent below 1990 levels by 2012 it abandoned reaching in 2007.

Under the 2009 Copenhagen Accord, world leaders agreed to limit the increase in average global temperatures to no more than 2 degrees Celsius in order to prevent serious climate change, a target that the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change states would require global emissions to stabilize at 450 parts per million by volume before being reduced by at least 50 percent by 2050.

Pembina’s projected emissions shortfall for Alberta would likely mean Canada’s emissions would be almost 13 percent above 1990 levels in 2020.

Developed countries drive wedge through major developing countries

Saturday, December 10th, 2011

India’s chief negotiator Mr Mauskar indicated Friday a process of ‘divide and rule’ was being forced through the so-called BASIC countries of Brazil, South Africa, India and China.

European Union Climate Action Commissioner Connie Hedegaard told a press conference that Brazil and South Africa were now prepared to accept a legally-binding agreement.

India’s chief negotiator said that BASIC countries would stick together and that India had not ruled out agreeing to a legally-binding agreement, he said.

The EU released a Common Statement Friday following a press call Thursday demonstrating support for their roadmap leading to a 2015 legally binding agreement from both the Least Developed Countries (LDC) and the Association of Small Island States (AOSIS).

The EU, OASIS and LDC common statement called for an operational Green Climate Fund and increased mitigation commitments.